Håndverk

Grammar Review

Sentence structure

While most Norwegian sentences use the subject-verb-object (SVO) word order, like English does, Norwegian does have the V2 (verb second) rule. If an adverbial phrase or subordinate clause is at the front of the sentence, the subject and the verb have to switch places (this is called “inversion”) so that the verb stays in the second position.

Eksempel English

SVO

Markus kjøpte en bil i går.

Markus bought a car yesterday.

Sofia hadde en kanin da hun var ung.

Sofia had a rabbit when she was young.

V2

I går kjøpte Markus en bil.

Yesterday, Markus bought a car.

Da Sofia var ung, hadde hun en kanin.

When Sofia was young, she had a rabbit.

Verb Conjugation

Conjugating present tense of verbs in Norwegian is fairly simple. Most present tense verbs just add an -r to the end of the infinitive.

Infinitive

Present

English

Infinitive

Present

English

Å lese

Leser

Reads

Å skrive

Skriver

Writes

Å kjøpe

Kjøper

Buys

Å løpe

Løper

Runs

There are some exceptions / irregulars:

Infinitive

Present

English

Infinitive

Present

English

Å kunne

Kan

To be able to

Å måtte

To have to

Å skulle

Skal

To have to; to be going to

Å ville

Vil

To want

Å være

Er

To be

Å vite

Vet

To know

Past tense conjugation is a bit more difficult, however there are some guidelines (but keep in mind there are exceptions).

  1. If the verb ends with a double consonant, consonant cluster, or voiced plosive (b / d), past tense will end in -et.

  2. If the verb ends in a single consonant (except v / b / d), past tense ends in -te.

  3. If the verb ends with v or diphthong, the past tense ends in -de.

  4. If the verb has only one syllable with a long vowel, past tense ends in -dde.

Rule Number

Infinitive

Past Tense

English

1

Å snakke

Snakket

Talked

Å ønske

Ønsket

Wished

2

Å lære

Lærte

Learned

Å kjøpe

Kjøpte

Bought

3

Å leve

Levde

Lived

Å pleie

Pleide

Used

4

Å bo

Bodde

Lived

For future tense, typically the present tense verb is used with a time adverbial to clarify it is a future action.

Eksempel

English

De kommer på søndag.

They are coming on Sunday.

Leksjonen starter snart.

The lesson starts soon.

Adjective Basics

Adjectives typically have to agree with the gender and the number of the noun.

Singular Indefinite Plural Indefinite

Norwegian

English

Norwegian

English

Masculine

En stor sirkel

A big circle

Store sirkler

Big circles

En ny pensel

A new paintbrush

Nye pensler

New paintbrushes

Neuter

Et stort rektangel

A big rectangle

Store rektangler

Big rectangles

Et nytt material

A new material

Nye materialer

New materials

When the noun is in the definite form, the adjective takes an -e ending (like in the plural indefinite above).

Singular Definite Plural Definite

Norwegian

English

Norwegian

English

Masculine

Den store sirkelen

The big circle

De store sirklene

The big circles

Denne nye penselen

This new paintbrush

Disse nye penslene

These new paintbrushes

Neuter

Det store rektanglet

The big rectangle

De store rektanglene

The big rectangles

Dette nye materialet

This new material

Disse nye materialene

These new materials

Arts & Crafts

If you travel (or move) to Norway, you can find many types of art https://www.visitnorway.com/things-to-do/art-culture/museums/top-art-museums/museums], from classic art to modern art; from architecture to photography. One of the most well-known Norwegian artists is the painter Edvard Munch, who created the iconic piece titled, “The Scream.” In fact, the location that inspired the painting is Ekebergskrenten in Oslo.

image

In the mid-1700s, a popular form of artistic expression was rose painting (rosemaling). The styles vary greatly from region to region, but typically it includes organic patterns, flowers, scrollwork, and geometric designs on furniture and other household items, such as utensils. The designs were often painted on wood. During WWII, when Norway was occupied by Nazi forces, King Haakon VII was exiled and Norwegians flying the Norwegian flag could be imprisoned. What many Norwegians began to do, instead, was to incorporate the royal cypher (an “H” overlapping a “7”) in their rosemaling designs without getting in trouble by the Nazis. Many Christmas cards displayed the royal cypher in the center of rosemaling designs.

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While “architecture” is not typically something that comes to mind when one hears the word “art,” when one looks at the Norwegian stave churches (stavkirker), it’s difficult to ignore the artistic beauty in their design. Stave churches are elaborately carved wooden churches that used to be found in many areas of northwestern Europe, however they are mostly only found in Norway now. The reason they are called “stave” churches is because they all feature corner posts (known as “staves”). The walls are made from planks standing on sills; these walls are called “stave walls.” The door frames and window frames feature ornamental carvings, typically in the patterns of dragons, leaf patterns, and tendrils. There are 28 stave churches in Norway, with the largest one, Heddal stave church, located in Telemark.

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Many people enjoy doing different types of arts and crafts, whether to make money, just as a relaxing hobby, or something fun to do with your kids / siblings / nieces / nephews, etc. While this lesson is not an exhaustive list of craft terminology, it will provide a good foundation.

Verbs:

English

Norwegian

English

Norwegian

To airbrush

Å airbrushe

To alternate

Å bytte

To attach

Å feste

To assemble

Å sette samme

To bend

Å bøye

To carve

Å skjære

To chisel

Å meisle

To chop

Å hugge

To colour

Å farge

To contour

Å konturere

To crochet

Å hekle

To cut

Å kutte

To dab

Å dabbe

To decorate

Å dekorere

To decrease

Å redusere

To design

Å designe

To detach

Å løsne

To dilute

Å fortynne

To draw

Å tegne

To dry

Å tørke

To embroider

Å brodere

To engrave

Å gravere

To etch

Å etse

To erase

Å slette/fjerne

To flatten

Å flate

To fold

Å brette

To fray

Å fryke

To gild

Å forgylle

To glaze

Å glasere

To glue / paste

Å lime

To hang up

Å henge opp

To hammer

Å hamre

To highlight

Å markere

To increase

Å øke

To join

Å feste / Skjøte på

To knit

Å strikke

To mark

Å markere

To measure

Å måle

To mix / blend

Å blande

To outline

Å skissere

To paint

Å male

-

-

To pull

Å trekke

To repeat

Å gjenta

To sand

Å slipe / Pusse

To scrape

Å skrape

To sew / stitch

Å sy

To shade

Å sjattere

To shape

Å forme

To sharpen

Å skjerpe

To sketch

Å skissere

To soften

Å mykne

To spread / smear

Å smøre

To stamp

Å stemple

To tape

Å tape

To trim

Å trimme

To turn over

Å snu

To weave

Å veve

To weld

Å sveise

Misc. Arts & Crafts Vocab:

English Norwegian English Norwegian

Animation

Animasjon (en)

Art

Kunst (en)

Artisan / craft maker

Håndverker (en)

Artist

Kunstner (en)

Blacksmith

Smed (en)

Border

Ramme (en)

Calligraphy

Kalligrafi (en)

Cardboard

Papp (et)

Ceramic

Keramikk!!?

Chisel

Meisel (en)

Circle

Sirkel (en)

Clay

Leire (et)

Collage

Collage (en)

Colour

Farge (en)

Colouring book

Fargebok (ei)

Construction paper

Kartong (en)

Copper

Kobber (et)

Corner

Hjørne (et)

Craft

Håndverk (et)

Crayon

Fargestift (en)

Crease

Fold (en)

Creative

Kreativ

Creativity

Kreativitet (en)

Decoupage

Decoupage (uncountable)

Diagonal

Diagonal (en)

Dry

Tørr

Edge

Kant (en)

Enamel

Emalje (en)

Felt

Filt (en)

Flat

Flat

Forge

Smi (en)

Glass

Glass (et)

Glassblower

Glassblåser (en)

Glasswork

Glassarbeid (et)

Glaze

Glasur (en)

Glossy

Blank

Glue

Lim (en)

Gluestick

Limstift (en)

Graphic design

Grafisk design

Hammer

Hammer (en)

Hobby

Hobby (en)

Horizontal

Horisontal

Hue

Nyanse (en)

Ink pad

Stempelpute (en)

Instructions

Instruksjoner

Iron

Jern (et)

Iron smith

Jernsmed (en)

Line

Linje (en)

Material

Materiale (et)

Marker

Markør (en)

Masking tape

Maskeringsbånd (en)

Medium

Medium (et)

Mosaic

Mosaikk (en)

Paint

Maling (en)

Paint brush

Pensel (en) / Malerpensel (en)

Paper

Papir (et)

Paper mache

Pappmasje (uncountable)

Pattern

Mønster (et)

Pen

Penn (en)

Pencil

Blyant (en)

Pencil sharpener

Blyantspisser (en)

Pipe cleaner

Piperenser (en)

Point

Punkt (et)

Poster

Plakat (en)

Pottery

Keramikk (en)

Pottery bowl

Keramikkskål (en)

Pottery oven / Kiln

Keramikkovn (en)

Pottery wheel

Keramikkhjul (et)

Prism

Prisme (en / et)

Protractor

Vinkelmåler (en)

Proportion

Proporsjon (en)

Rectangle

Rektangel (et)

Rubber

Gummi (en / et)

Rubber stamp

Gummistempel (et)

Ruler

Linjal (en)

Safety

Sikkerhet (en)

Safety precautions

Sikkerhetstiltak (en)

Sandpaper

Sandpapir (et)

Scissors

Saks (en)

Scrapbook

Utklippsbok (en)

Scraper / Putty knife

Sparkelkniv (en)

Sculpture

Skulptur (en)

Shape

Form (en)

Silkscreen

Silketrykk (et)

Square

Kvadrat (en)

Stamp

Stempel (et)

Stapler

Stiftemaskin (en)

Step

Trinn (et)

Sticker

Klistremerke (et)

String / Thread

Streng / Tråd (en)

Style

Stil (en)

Surface

(Over)Flate (en)

Tape

Teip (en)

Tapestry

Tapet (en)

Tool

Verktøy (et)

Triangle

Triangel (en)

Vertical

Vertikal

Visual arts

Visuell kunst (en)

Wax

Voks (en / et)

Weaver

Vever (en)

Wood

Tre (et)

Woodwork

Trearbeid (et)

Yarn

Garn(tråd) (et)

-

-

NOTE: If you’re interested in more specific vocabulary related to drawing, painting, sewing, knitting, or crocheting, you can find it here: Extra

**If the lesson was beneficial, please consider buying me a virtual coffee. Thanks.**

Resources:

Exercise: Write a paragraph, either about your favorite piece of artwork, or your favorite hobby, or give instructions on how to make something.